Adolphe Thiers. With my full sympathy, high estime and vivid admiration. His grandfather, Louis-Charles Thiers, was an attorney in Aix-en-Provence, who moved to Marseille to become the guardian of the city archives, and secretary-general of the city administration, though he lost that post during the French Revolution. He went first to Rome, where his friend Ingres, the Director of the Villa Medicis, gave him a tour of the monuments, then to Florence, where he had the idea of writing a history of that city. On 11 December, shortly after the elections, Louis-Napoleon invited Thiers to his home for dinner, and they discussed the future government. One could say that the real founder of the Republic is the Count of Chambord."[45]. "[61], Thiers also wrote a history of the 1830 Revolution, in which he played an important part, and a memoire, called Souvenirs. [7], With the painter Ary Scheffer, a friend of Louis-Philippe, he rode on horseback immediately to the Duke's residence in Neuilly, but found that the Duke had left and was in hiding at another chateau in Raincy. But the billions we give to Germany now we will never recover." He decided to move to Paris and to try to make a career as a writer. In opposition, both under Louis Philippe and under the empire, and even to some extent in the last four years of his life, his worst qualities were always evident. Adolphe Thiers demonstrated his political liberalism by helping to overthrow Charles X in 1830, by opposing Napoleon III ’s authoritarianism under the Second Empire, and by working towards the establishment of a moderate republic in the early 1870s. "In this Assembly, elected by universal suffrage, three-quarters of the members want peace." "The house is burning," Molé told the King. 71 Republican deputies of the Assembly were, like Thiers, expelled from France. Rather than making the request public, he wrote to a personal English friend, Lord Clarendon, who was a member of the British government, saying: "to keep a cadaver as a prisoner is not worthy of you, nor is it possible on the part of a government such as yours. Ten years after his arrival in Paris, he began his political career. He was an actor, known for Count of Bragelonne (1954), Les rois maudits (1972) and Sorcerer (1977). Thiers was a key figure in the July Revolution of 1830, which overthrew the Bourbon monarchy, and the French Revolution of 1848, which established the Second French Republic. Others were Victor Hugo, Alphonse de Lamartine, and Alexis de Tocqueville; but Thiers was the only writer who reached the highest level of the French state. During one debate a member of the government claimed that the Assembly, not Thiers, was responsible for liberating French territory from the Germans. "But don't you know the law?" It gradually divided into two informal parties: the so-called Party of Movement, to which Thiers belonged, which wanted the maximum number of reforms as soon as possible; and the conservative Party of Order, who, once the new government was installed, wanted no further turbulence. Synonyms for Adolphine in Free Thesaurus. Instead of speaking from the tribune, members were only allowed to speak from their seats. In exchange, as they had promised, the Germans withdrew their troops from three departments; the Eure, the Somme, and the lower Seine.[44]. The book was criticized by Chateaubriand, who called it "an odious advertisement for Bonaparte, edited in the style of a newspaper" It had the unplanned effect of raising even further the prestige of Napoleon's nephew and Thiers' future enemy, Louis-Napoleon.[19]. He modified the rules of the Assembly so that the President had the power to veto laws passed by the Assembly, but also requiring that the President ask permission from the head of the Assembly before he spoke to the body. "But where are they?" Some, including the famous anarchist Louise Michel, quickly returned to political agitation. The Duke de Broglie was carefully preparing a way to bring down Thiers. The law was approved, removing one-third of the voters in France from the voting lists. [36], On 19 February, Thiers announced the formation of a new government with nine ministers, a majority of republicans, including Jules Favre and Jules Simon. The complete work of ten volumes sold ten thousand sets, an enormous number for the time. Mieux, ses « trois moitiés » comme la presse aimait à les appeler, n’étaient pas seulement issues de la même famille, elles étaient surtout mère et filles. Thiers protested. Former president of the Republic and former art critic Adolphe Thiers died in 1877. Etienne commissioned Thiers as a regular contributor. In 1983 the historian René de La Croix de Castries summarized the career of Thiers this way: "Thiers was essentially an ambitious man and an egoist. [31], On economic policy, he was relentlessly conservative; he called for protectionism to defend French industry, and condemned the high cost of Baron Georges-Eugène Haussmann's rebuilding of Paris, which had reached 461 million francs. Thiers and the Assembly rejected his request. Thanks to his letters of recommendation, He was able to get a position as a secretary to the prominent philanthropist and social reformer, the Duke of La Rochefoucalt-Liancourt; the man who in 1789, when King Louis XVI, asked if there was a revolt in Paris, replied, "No, Majesty, this is a Revolution." Les primeres mesures aprovades per la nova Assemblea confirmaren les inquietuds de la població, i recordaven les mesures impopulars impulsades per Thiers durant … A carriage took him out of Paris to Saint-Cloud, and soon afterwards he crossed the Channel to exile in England.[24]. Both were arrested and imprisoned, but later released, and went on to much more ambitious revolutionary projects. In early April, the first skirmishes between the army and Commune soldiers took place in the vicinity of Paris. Thiers explained that they wanted a representative monarchy and a new dynasty, and that everyone knew that Louis-Philippe was not ambitious and had not sought the crown for himself. Out of office, he traveled in Italy. [51]. He will only call on me when he is danger. A debate and vote of confidence in his government was scheduled for 23 May. Albert Mathiez Les grands jours de la Constituante. Shortly afterwards, on 13 April, barricades went up in the Marais district in Paris. [53], The father of Adolphe, Louis Thiers, had an extremely turbulent career; he was confined to a monastery by his father for a year after running up unpaid debts; he was arrested and imprisoned several times, but protected by a connection with Lucien Bonaparte, the younger brother of Napoleon Bonaparte, whom he saved from imprisonment.[54]. Thiers insisted, however, that France keep the fortress town of Belfort. If the King did not accept it, he proposed simply changing the King, as the English had done in 1688. In 1868–1869 he published Portraits de femmes. The French flag was hoisted over Algiers on 5 July 1830, and new elections were held from 13 to 19 July. In August 1829, Charles X decided to show his authority over the unruly Chamber of Deputies, and named a fervent royalist, Jules de Polignac as his new prime minister. On 6 February 1871, Gambetta resigned from the government. He was very well paid by Johann Friedrich Cotta, the part-proprietor of the Constitutionnel. A national referendum on Napoleon's policies on 8 May 1870, confirmed the Emperor's popularity in the provinces of France by a vote of 7,386,000 yes, 1,560,000 no, and 1,894,000 abstentions. Palmerston did not attack Egypt, and crisis ended. Opposition to the King continued to grow; he was the target of two more unsuccessful assassination attempts 1846. I give them a formal denial; they are lying to France ... We have accepted this mission, to defend order and to re-organize the country. The republicans in the Assembly, including Léon Gambetta, rallied around Thiers as a defender of the republic. Bismarck conceded the town, on the condition that, when the armistice was signed, the Prussian army could hold a brief victory parade on the Champs-Élysées, and could remain until the treaty was ratified. Similar Communes were quickly declared in Lyon, Marseille, and other cities, but were rapidly suppressed by the army. Austria is defeated, Italy is looking for adventure, England wants to avoid the Continent, Russia is occupied with its own interests, and as far as Spain is concerned, never have the Pyrenees been so high. Thiers was responsible for the construction of Napoleon's tomb at Les Invalides, and for the completion of the column on Place Vendôme and the Arc de Triomphe, both of which he dedicated. According to historian Adolphe Thiers, the President of the Paris Commune, Pierre Gaspard Chaumette, gave a speech to the city on 14 October 1793 … On 15 April 1877, Thiers celebrated his 80th birthday; he received telegrams of congratulations from all over Europe, including a friendly message from Bismarck. He pointed out to Thiers and said: "I will not take away from the illustrious man of state who is before me, whom no one honors more than me, the honor and glory which belongs to him, but which he does not want to claim for himself alone. In response, a mob attacked Thiers' empty house, taking all his personal belongings and later setting fire to the house. 2 Adolphe Thiers previously served in the executive position of Chief of the Executive Power from 17 February 1871 until 30 August 1871, his presidency then beginning the following day on 31 August 1871. The diplomatic corps was in the audience, along with the Thiers family, and Marshal MacMahon, in civilian clothes. On 30 August 1871, the Assembly voted 494 to 94 to change the title of Thiers from Chief of the Executive Power to President of the Republic, under the authority of the National Assembly. Thiers knew Bismarck well and saw clearly what he was doing. The first work, on the French Revolution, published between 1823 and 1827, was highly praised by French critics. and new elections were called for 8 February. Thiers accepted the position, and chose a government, keeping for himself the position of Foreign Minister. The socialists were impatient with the slow pace of change; led by Ledru-Rollin, they staged an uprising in Paris, which was quickly suppressed by the army. Thiers offered his resignation, which was rejected by the Assembly; with only eight dissenting voices, they insisted that he remain as president. "[14] He was given the support of the Deputies by a vote of 251 to 99. The historian George Saintsbury wrote in the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1911): "Thiers' historical work is marked by extreme inaccuracy, by prejudice which passes the limits of accidental unfairness, and by an almost complete indifference to the merits as compared with the successes of his heroes."[3]. Following the defeat of France in the Franco-Prussian War, which Thiers opposed, he was elected chief executive of the new French government and negotiated the end of the war. Biography. Early in the morning of 2 December 1851, in what became known as the December 1851 coup d'état, the army took up positions in key positions in Paris, and at six a.m. the commissioner of police, Hubault, appeared at his residence at Place Saint-Georges and placed him under arrest. The primary goal of Thiers in 1873 was to pay off the debt to Germany, to liberate the last French territory occupied by the Germans. Thiers, believing that the government was too strong to allow an uprising, advised caution and said he would not attend the banquet. The more moderate members elected, including Georges Clemenceau, departed, leaving the Commune under the control of the most militant revolutionary movements. Super, wrote a foreword to an American edition of the volume of Thiers' book on the Battle of Waterloo, published in 1902. "[67], The historian Pierre Guiral wrote in 1986: "He was a founder, the Washington of France, a man full of weaknesses but an uncontested patriot. His literary reputation introduced him into the most influential literary and political salons in Paris. An American professor of French literature, O.B. The police linked Alibaud to a secret revolutionary group called "Les Familles", by Armand Barbès and Louis Blanqui. The speech made him again a leading figure of the opposition; he was cheered by a crowd outside his house when he returned home. Antonyms for Adolphine. Opposed by the monarchists in the French assembly and the left wing of the Republicans, he resigned on 24 May 1873, and was replaced as President by Patrice de MacMahon. A general uprising began, and the revolutionaries seized the major government buildings. The elections were a disaster for the King; the opposition won 270 seats, against 145 supporters of the King. The talks were long and stressful; at one point Thiers, exhausted, broke down and wept. I" by Adolphe Thiers available from Rakuten Kobo. He was sentenced to life in prison, and sent to serve his sentence to the fortress of Ham. [33]. Thiers and his allies briefly left the city to avoid arrest, but soon came back. Salon de 1673. The 19th and final 20th volume were published in 1862. Guizot found a safe refuge in Paris for some days in the lodging of a humble miniature painter whom he had befriended, and shortly afterwards effected his escape across the Belgian frontier and thence to London, where he arrived on 3 March. The Commune soldiers were outnumbered four or five to one, had no single military leader, no plan of defense, and no possibility of aid from the outside. However, he demanded and received the right to reply. ETAT MORAL ET POLITIQUE DE LA FRANCE A LA FIN DU DIX−HUITIEME … Thiers and the other conservative leaders of the Assembly also rebelled against the high cost of Louis-Napoleon's household; he requested 175 new staff for the Palace, and asked funding for an additional twenty grand dinners and twelve grand balls a year. There were 500 monarchists, divided about equally between Legitimists, who wanted a constitutional monarchy under Bourbon king, and the Orleanists, who wanted a King from the family of Louis-Philippe. The fighting continued through 28 May, until the capture of Père Lachaise cemetery and the city hall of the 11th arrondissement. It sold 50,000 complete sets of the book. In the debate that followed, fifty members spoke for and against the peace. A majority of the Assembly members supported some form of constitutional monarchy, though they were about equally divided between those who wanted a King from the former Bourbon monarchy, and the Orleanists, who wanted a descendant of Louis-Philippe. When elected, Hugo sent a copy of his new poem about Napoleon to Thiers, declaring to Thiers that Thiers was "a man I honor and love; your spirit is one of those that seduces my own. The King slowly wrote out and signed his act of abdication, changed from his uniform into civilian clothes, and left through the gardens of the Tuileries. "[20] From 1840 through 1844, Thiers traveled around Europe, crisscrossing Holland, Germany, Switzerland and Spain and visiting he battlefields where Napoleon fought and meeting people who had witnessed them. Barbés and Blanqui were arrested and sentenced to confinement for life in the prison on Mont-Saint-Michel. On 17 February, on a proposition by Grévy, Thiers was elected the Chef du pouvoir executive, or Chief Executive of the government. Cette triple relation, connue de tous et souvent raillée dans la presse, se poursuivra jusqu’à la mort d’Euridyce Dosne, la mère, en 1869. Les quatre protagonistes de cette histoire reposent aujourd’hui dans le mausolée dédié à Adolphe Thiers et édifié au coeur du Père-Lachaise (30e division). Thiers crossed the lines again and met Bismarck. To avoid a slaughter, the Emperor surrendered the army on the 2nd of September, and was taken prisoner with his army. But to be eligible to run, he needed to own property important enough that he paid taxes of at least one thousand francs a year. [32]. The majority of the two hundred newly elected deputies favored a constitutional monarchy, though it is also included a substantial group of republicans, including Victor Hugo. He is an actor, known for Marie Antoinette (2006), Spiral (2005) and Farewell, My Queen (2012). In 1873, the monarchists of the Assembly, led by the Duke de Broglie, began looking for a way to bring about his downfall. There will be a civil war, a revision of the Charter, and perhaps a change of personnel at the highest level. Salon de 1667. In the parliamentary debate that soon followed, Thiers declared: "Of course I am for a republic...outside of a republic, there is nothing but chaos." When the Constitutionelle hesitated to publish some of his more energetic attacks on the government, Thiers, with Armand Carrel, Mignet, Stendhal and others, started a new opposition newspaper, the National, whose first issue appeared on 3 January 1830. Dosne arranged a loan of one hundred thousand francs to Thiers so that he could buy a lot and build a house in a new real estate development at Place Saint-George. Alfred Louis Charles de Musset-Pathay (French: [al.fʁɛd də my.sɛ]; 11 December 1810 – 2 May 1857) was a French dramatist, poet, and novelist. Ce dernier est un agent de change aisé, influent en politique, son épouse est une femme ambitieuse qui voue assez vite une admiration sans faille à Adolphe Thiers, figure politique montante de la Monarchie de juillet. The writer Lamartine left a vivid description of Thiers, with whom he had dinner at this time: "He spoke first; he spoke last; he hardly listened to the replies; but he spoke with an accuracy, with an audacity, with a fecundity of ideas, that excused his volubility of words from his lips. POUR LIRE LES E-PUB. The relationship between Thiers and Louis-Philippe became more and more strained. This was also the view of Ledru-Rollin and the socialist deputies. On 21 May, the French army, with 120,000 soldiers, entered the city through an undefended gate. She was just three years older than Thiers. When the Paris Commune seized power in March 1871, Thiers gave the orders to the army for its suppression. [2], He began his celebrated Histoire de la Révolution française, which founded his literary reputation and boosted his political career. Adolphe Thiers, né le 15 avril 1797 (26 germinal an V) à Marseille et mort le 3 septembre 1877 à Saint-Germain-en-Laye, est un avocat, journaliste, historien et homme d'État français. Count Chambord went back into exile and never returned to France. Read "Histoire de la Revolution Francaise, Vol. [21] The army commander, Marshal Bugeaud, put squadrons of dragoons on the streets. Thiers went to Brussels, where he learned that Louis-Napoleon had organized a national referendum on his rule; more than seven million voters approved the coup, while 646,000 disapproved it. The demonstrations resumed on 23 February, under a freezing rain. Thiers traveled with a delegation of five members of the Assembly to Versailles, where Bismarck was waiting. The government responded by taking the newspaper to court, charging it with attacks on the person of the King and that of the royal family. Down with the system!" His father abandoned Adolphe and his mother shortly after he was born. Thiers noticed that the anti-royalist demonstrators had attacked shops which had signs showing that they were patronized by Charles X, but not those which advertised they were patronized by the King's cousin, Louis-Philippe, the Duke of Orleans, whose family had been sympathetic to the French Revolution. Compared with the others who surrounded him, he was a giant, and in addition he had one great virtue; patriotism. Thiers told the monarchist deputies, "In the presence of the enemy, who will soon be outside Paris, we have just one thing to do; to retire from here with dignity." Thiers decided to run for election to the Assembly. On this issue he was in a minority; the Assembly voted 367 to 297 to reduce tariffs on imported goods. Simon replied, "They have Marshal MacMahon." When the Assembly is hanging over the precipice, I will cut the cord."[28]. Reports of the event soon appeared in the press in France and across Europe, and did not improve Thiers' reputation with the Paris aristocracy. The misfortune, for you and for him, is that you cannot make him a cardinal." The book played a notable role in undermining the legitimacy of the Bourbon regime of Charles X, and bringing about the July Revolution of 1830. The King remained calm, telling his sister, "The Parisians never make a Revolution in the winter, and they won't overthrow the Monarchy for a banquet." He chose to represent a seat in Paris. The cortege to Père Lachaise, was led by the group of 363 republican deputies who had voted with Thiers against the government. The leaders of many of the National Guard units informed the Prefect of police that they wanted reform and would not support the army against the population. 164, December 27, 1833 MET DP818595.jpg 2,803 × 3,753; 1.92 MB Adolphe Thiers par Honoré Daumier.jpg 363 × 422; 58 KB Advice to Subscribers, published in Le Charivari, April 1, 1840 MET DP156689.jpg 2,882 × 3,872; 3.07 MB On 26 May, the fighting was centered in Belleville and around the Place du Trône (now Place de la Nation). Thiers rose to speak and declared: "Do you really mean to say that, for a question of form, you have decided to release torrents of blood?" We cannot afford to commit another error." Thiers dedicated the monument on 29 July 1836. The guardsmen stopped their assault, and gave the parliament members a petition demanding reforms. He demanded proof that Prussia had really insulted France. He commissioned the bas-reliefs for the Arc-de-Triomphe, and selected Eugène Delacroix to paint murals for the library of the French Senate and frescoes on the walls of the church of Saint-Sulpice, despite the opposition of Louis-Philippe, who disliked Delacroix's painting. On the front page of his newspaper, the National, he declared: "The legal regime is over; that of force has begun; in the situation in which we are placed, obedience has ceased to be an obligation." He recalled de Broglie to be his Prime Minister. Thiers had been planning a literary career, but in August 1829, when the King appointed the ultra-royalist, Polignac as his new prime minister, Thiers began to write increasingly fierce attacks on the royal government. Adolphe Thiers devra alors se contenter d’une épouse et d’une seule maîtresse jusqu’à son décès en 1877. Louis-Napoleon's proposal won a majority of the Assembly, but not the two-thirds required by the Constitution. President MacMahon wanted to organize a state funeral, and to personally follow the casket, but Madame Thiers refused; she wanted no monarchists to take part in the ceremony. Thiers then followed the same plan that he had proposed to Louis-Philippe during the 1848 Revolution, but which the King had rejected; Instead of fighting the insurrection immediately in Paris with the troops he had, he ordered regular army to withdraw to Versailles, to gather its forces, and then, when it was ready, to recapture the city. The Guard had become deeply radicalized by several revolutionary and socialist movements. Tout commence au début des années 1830, lorsqu’Adolphe Thiers rencontre Euridyce et Alexis Dosne. Félix Pyat, a radical socialist and a future leader of the Paris Commune, organized demonstrations against Thiers, whom he accused of threatening to sell France to the Germans, and threatened to have him hung. His grandson, the new heir, was only a child. The tax was rejected.[47]. Soon afterwards, on 27 April, an election was held in Paris to fill a vacant seat in the Assembly. Louis-Philippe removed this line from the speech, considering it too provocative to other European rulers. The restoration plan was defeated in the Assembly, and de Broglie resigned on 16 May 1874. On 19 March 1830, he raised the temperature, warning that if the deputies put obstacles in his path, he would "find the force to overcome them in my resolution to maintain the public peace, with the full confidence of the French and the love they have also shown toward their King." When a revolution broke out in Spain in 1822, he traveled as far as the Pyrenees to write about it. Thiers returned to Paris and urged Favre and the Government to accept the offer and end the war, but General Trochu and Favre were adamant that Paris could hold out and that France was still strong enough to win the war. He resumed his friendship with the painter Delacroix and with the sculptor François Rude, whom he had commissioned to make sculptural decoration for the Arc-de-Triomphe. His second major work was his enormous History of the Consulate and the Empire, in twenty volumes, published between 1845 and 1862. He did hold receptions and events in the Élysee, travellng back and forth to Paris with a large escort of police. [39]. This is a modest policy but confirms with good sense. Blocked by the National Assembly, Louis-Napoleon decided to take a different route. With the war over, the National Assembly proposed ending their salary. Fearing trouble, Guizot declared the banquet illegal, and ammunition was given to the army garrison, and they prepared for trouble. All the shops were closed and there were no Parisians on the street. When a friend of Louis-Napoleon asked him if he wasn't afraid of losing power without universal suffrage, he replied, "Not at all. ), Femmes dans la cit´e (Paris 1997), pp. The King abruptly turned around rode back to Palace, where he sat in an armchair, head in his hands. He spoke emotionally at length, explaining that he, a longtime supporter of the monarchy, had decided that, "considering the way of things today in the civilized world, for you and me, in practice a monarchy is absolutely impossible." The soldiers in Boulogne refused to change sides; Louis-Napoleon was captured, taken to the Conciergerie in Paris, and put on trial. After the War of 1870-71, he returned to the Bien Public, created by friends of Adolphe Thiers, where he wrote for four years musical and literary criticism. His grandfather, Louis-Charles Thiers, was an attorney in Aix-en-Provence, who moved to Marseille to become the guardian of the city archives, and secretary-general of the city administration, though he lost that post during the French Revolution. Bismarck explained to Favre that, to end the war, France would need to surrender Alsace, part of Lorraine, several border fortresses, and a large sum of money. But with all these drawbacks he conquered and will retain a place in what is perhaps the highest, as it is certainly the smallest, class of statesmen: the class of those to whom their country has had recourse in a great disaster, who have shown in bringing her through that disaster with constancy, courage, devotion and skill and have been rewarded by as much success as the occasion permitted."[59]. He won admission to a lycée of Marseille through a competitive examination, and then, with the help of his relatives, was able to enter the faculty of law in Aix-en-Provence in November 1815. Four weeks later, on 13 May 1797, Pierre-Louis married Marie-Madeleine Amic, making Adolphe legitimate. In July 1833, Thiers dedicated a new Paris landmark, the column in Place Vendôme. Special tribunals were set up to judge the republican opponents of the new regime; 5,000 were confined to house arrest, almost ten thousand were deported to prison camps in Algeria, and 240 were sent to camps in Guyana.